Bacillus bacteria are a common type of bacteria found in shrimp aquaculture. They have several beneficial effects on the aquaculture environment. Let's take a closer look at Bacillus bacteria and their advantages!
Bacillus bacteria can strongly decompose carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur compounds while competing with harmful algae and pathogenic bacteria in the aquaculture environment. By forming a dominant population, they can suppress harmful algae and pathogens.
Some Bacillus bacteria that can be utilized include Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus mycoides, and Clostridium butyricum.
Suspended solids and sediment in aquaculture ponds can severely deteriorate water quality, leading to disease in aquatic animals. Bacillus bacteria can break down these materials through enzymatic action, maintaining balance in the aquatic ecosystem. Adding Bacillus bacteria (with a concentration of ≥1010 cells/g) to aquaculture ponds can reduce COD and BOD levels, effectively improving water quality and the surrounding environment.
Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water can lead to pond eutrophication, resulting in toxic ammonia and hydrogen sulfide levels that harm aquatic animals. Bacillus bacteria can utilize their enzymes to break down nitrogen and sulfur compounds, purifying the water.
Experiments using Bacillus bacteria to improve sediment quality have shown no organic carbon accumulation, indicating that Bacillus bacteria effectively degrade organic carbon. Total nitrogen accumulates, but the difference between the treated and control groups is insignificant. The carbon-to-nitrogen ratio in the sediment decreases.
Bacillus bacteria have excellent flocculation properties, and a combination of Bacillus strains works better than a single strain. The flocculation process causes organic debris in the water to stick together, forming bacterial flocs that oxidize and decompose organic matter. This process causes heavy metals, phosphorus, and other elements to precipitate, purifying the water.
Under the influence of Bacillus bacteria, nitrate ions are reduced to nitrogen gas through reactions involving nitrite ions, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide. Bacillus bacteria are aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria that can use oxygen or nitrate ions as a final electron acceptor to produce nitrogen oxides and gas. This denitrification process removes nitrates from the system, increasing the pH.
Bacillus bacteria can decompose carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur compounds and break down proteins, complex polysaccharides, and water-soluble organic matter. This makes them a valuable addition to shrimp aquaculture systems to improve water quality and maintain a healthy environment.